Chaika S.Yu.1, Orlova E.Yu.2 2010. Embryonic molt numbers in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects // Russian Entomol. J. Vol.18 (for 2009). No.3: 157–164 [in English].
KEY WORDS: metamorphosis, Hemimetabola, Holometabola, pronymph, embryonic development, cuticle, ontogenesis.
ABSTRACT. Embryonic molts reflect free-living ancestral stages and facilitate the study of embryonization, the compressing of post-embryonic stages into the egg. In Hemimetabola, three cuticles are formed during embryonic development. Cuticles 1 and 2 are purely embryonic, while cuticle 3, also formed in ovum, becomes the first-instar nymphal cuticle. Holometabolism involves a single embryonic cuticle, same as the first-instar cuticle.