Tishechkin D.Yu. 2015. Speciation in Macropsinae leafhoppers (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) — the role of acoustic signal divergence and host plant shifts // Russian Entomol. J. Vol.24. No.1: 7–16 [in English].
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, Moscow 119991, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
KEY WORDS: leafhoppers, Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae, Macropsinae, speciation, divergence, vibrational signals, host shift, specific mate recognition system.
ABSTRACT. Examples of divergence in various traits in allopatric, formally sympatric (dwelling on the same territory, but on different hosts), and strictly sympatric (dwelling on the same territory and host) species of Macropsinae are considered. Strictly sympatric species always differ from each other in calling signal pattern. Formally sympatric and allopatric species can produce similar signals, because partitioning of acoustic transmission channels in this case is provided by ecological or geographical isolation. The divergence in coloration and/or morphology is a secondary event in relation to signal divergence or range disjunction. Different traits can diverge independently of one another; as a result, some species differ in coloration, but not in genitalia shape, the others differ in genitalia shape, but not in coloration. Thus, this is the calling signal pattern, but not coloration or genitalia shape, which is a key element of specific mate recognition system in small Auchenorrhyncha. Host shift and geographic isolation of populations from the same host apparently are two main speciation modes in leafhoppers. Different modes can be realized in different species groups even within the same subfamily or genus.