Golovatch S.I.1, Palatov D.M.2, Turbanov I.S.3,4, Kniss V.A.5, Gazaryan S.6, Snit’ko V.P.7, Decu V.8, Juberthie Ch.9, Nazareanu G.10 2018. Subterranean biota of the European part of Russia: A review // Invertebrate Zoology. Vol.15. No.2: 153–213 [in English].

1 Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr., 33, Moscow, 119071 Russia. E-mail: sgolovatch@yandex.ru

2 Department of Hydrobiology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/12, Moscow, 119234 Russia; E-mail: triops@yandex.ru

3 Papanin Institute of the Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, Nekouzskiy District, Yaroslavl Region, 152742 Russia. E-mail: turba13@mail.ru

4 Cherepovets State University, Lunacharskogo pr., 5, Cherepovets, Vologda Region, 162600 Russia.

5 Bashkirian University, 32 rue Frunze, Ufa, 450074 Russia.

6 UNEP/EUROBATS Secretariat, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, D-53113 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: s.gazaryan@gmail.com

7 Il’men State Nature Reserve, Chelyabinsk Region, Miass, 456317 Russia. E-mail: snitko@ilmeny.ac.ru

8 Institutul de Speologie «Emil Racovitza», Academia romana, Calea 13 Septembrie, Bucarest, 13050711 Romania.

9 Encyclopйdie Biospéologique, Edition. 1 Impasse Saint-Jacques, F-09190 Saint-Lizier, France. E-mail: christianjuberthie@wanadoo.fr

10 Museul Istorie naturalia Gregori Antipa, Soseana Kiseleff, 1, Bucarest, Romania.

ABSTRACT. The endogean flora and fauna of European Russia, including those of the northwestern Caucasus, but excluding those of Crimea, presently comprise at least 389 species or subspecies (some still unidentified) from 229 genera (a few still unidentified), 150 families, 75 orders, 48 classes and 25 phyla, among which 96 species or subspecies represent presumed stygo- or troglobionts. The taxonomically most diverse phylum is Arthropoda which encompasses the bulk of the fauna, in particular due to crustaceans, beetles and collembolans. Whereas the troglofauna of northern Russia is completely devoid of such strongly cave-adapted animals, in the Urals, Cis-Urals and central Russia there are a few, but the greatest diversity of hypogean species in the region is observed in the northwestern Caucasus, in particular its maritime western part, as an “Ice Age” refugium of nemoral biota rich in karst.

KEY WORDS: Eastern Europe, Urals, Cis-Urals, northern Caucasus, endogean invertebrates, bats, stygophiles, stygobionts, troglophiles, troglobionts.

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